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Shale gas: open the new situation of China's energy exploration and development
172nd kinds of mineral resources in China recently appeared. The State Council approved the shale gas as a new independent mineral, oil and gas resources in China from the family adds a new member.
Shale gas exploration and development success rate is high, with high industrial economic value, is one of the most important alternative energy in the future.
China's shale gas resource potential, a preliminary estimate of recoverable resources in 31 trillion cubic meters, with the conventional natural gas quite as soon as possible to achieve scale and development of shale gas, which will help alleviate the situation of shortage of oil and gas resources in China, the formation of a new pattern of oil and gas exploration and development, change the energy structure of our country.
Shale gas is a kind of clean and efficient energy resource, which is mainly composed of methane, which is a kind of clean and efficient energy resource, which exists in the rich organic shale and its interlayer. Has the characteristics of self - storage, wide distribution, shallow buried, long production cycle and so on.
At present, the shale gas in the field of A new force suddenly rises. global oil and gas resources exploration and development, the formation of a new bright spot. Accelerate shale gas exploration and development, has become the world's major shale gas resource countries and regions of common choice.
China is shale gas resources in the country, accelerate the development of shale gas, to change the pattern of China's oil and gas resources, even change the energy structure, ease China's oil and gas resources shortage, the protection of national energy security, promoting economic and social development, have very important significance.
The shale gas revolution triggered by the United States is spreading to the world
According to the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the latest statistics show that the current global shale gas recoverable resources of 189 trillion cubic meters. Which North America has 55 trillion cubic meters, ranking first in Asia has 51 trillion cubic meters, ranking second; Africa has 30 trillion cubic meters, ranking third; Europe has 18 trillion cubic meters, ranking fourth. Other parts of the world have 35 trillion cubic meters. Shale gas exploration and development in North America, Asia, Europe, South America, Oceania and other regions booming, the outbreak of a shale gas revolution".
The United States is the earliest and most successful development of shale gas development. In 1981, the first shale gas well fracturing success, to achieve a breakthrough in shale gas exploration and development. Since the beginning of this century, with the successful application of large scale fracturing technology in horizontal wells, the development and utilization of shale gas in the United States is developing rapidly. U.S. shale gas production from 19 billion 400 million cubic meters in 2005, increased to 137 billion 800 million cubic meters in 2010, accounting for 23% of total U.S. natural gas production. 2011 is 180 billion cubic meters, accounting for 34%. This has changed the pattern of natural gas supply in the United States, so that the country's imports of natural gas and a large decline in the amount of LNG. It is predicted that shale gas will become the main source of future natural gas production in the United States, by 2035 the proportion of total output will increase to 46%. This has increased the confidence of other countries for shale gas exploration and development.
At present, many countries in the world are following the development of shale gas in the United States in order to reduce the Middle East, North Africa and Russia's dependence on imports of natural gas.
Canada is after the United States in the world the second of shale gas exploration and development of the country, except self-sufficient, an increase of supplies to Europe and Asia Pacific region, North America has become a new growth point of the world's energy. Significant progress has been made in Europe, Poland, Germany, Austria, Hungary, Poland, Spain and other countries of shale gas exploration and development, is expected to 2035 will gradually get rid of dependence on Russian gas, self-sufficient in gas, improve energy security in Europe. Asia Pacific, India, Indonesia, Australia and South America, Argentina and Columbia, and Africa South Africa country is also actively carry out exploration and development of shale gas, have made significant progress, much in the early bird catches the worm in the region, leading the potential of energy in future.
The United States on the development of shale gas development and utilization of rapid experience, mainly including the following aspects:
First, the opening of the competitive environment has played a role in promoting. Shale gas exploration and development in the United States, low access threshold, diversification of exploration and development. U.S. shale gas exploration and development is mainly driven by small and medium companies, there are currently thousands of shale gas companies, there are more than 2000 drilling rigs, 85% of shale gas production by small and medium companies. Small and medium-sized companies in the first to obtain technical and industrial breakthroughs, large companies through mergers and acquisitions and mergers and acquisitions of small and medium enterprises to enter the market, the formation of a large and small enterprises in the development of the market competition pattern.
Two is the technological progress has played a role in promoting. The government of the United States in the seventies of the last century, set up special funds for shale gas as the basic research and key technology research, first in the world the successful development of the shale gas horizontal drilling and multi fracturing technology and large-scale application, directly contributed to the commercial development of shale gas. Due to technological innovation, the cost of shale gas production in the United States is only half of the cost of conventional natural gas. At present, the United States a total footage in 4000 m to 4500 meters of horizontal shale gas well, drill and completion period less than 20 days, drilling, completion and fracturing cost around $300 million, equivalent to less than RMB 20 million yuan.
Three is the introduction of preferential policies played a supporting role. From 1978 to 1992, the federal government of the United States of America for shale gas development implementation of subsidies for up to 15 years, the state government has also introduced the corresponding tax relief policy, to the oil and gas industry implementation of the five tax incentives, greatly encouraged investment in small and medium-sized enterprise development drilling, effectively support and promote the exploration and development of shale gas.
Four is a sound market regulation has played a role in the protection of. The United States government attaches great importance to the supervision of shale gas exploration and development. Where the management of shale gas exploration and development related to the management of the duties entrusted to the regulatory functions, effective industry regulation is an important factor in the development of shale gas in the United States, one of the important factors.
Five is to improve the infrastructure has played a supporting role. U.S. natural gas pipeline network and urban gas network is very developed, the total length of the natural gas pipeline network is about 50 kilometers, greatly reducing the shale gas in the early stage of development and utilization of investment, reduce market risk. At the same time, the implementation of the comprehensive separation of natural gas development and transport, transport providers to implement non discriminatory access to natural gas suppliers. Pipeline transport prices are regulated, while the price of natural gas is fully liberalized, strong support for the commercialization of shale gas development.
Six is a professional technical service has played a supporting role. U.S. oil and gas Professional Company has a strong technical advantage, independent research and development of equipment and equipment, and a wide range of professional, high degree of specialization. Horizontal drilling, completion, cementing and fracturing and other projects as well as well logging, experimental testing, etc., are generally commissioned by professional and technical Service Corporation.
Shale gas resources are rich in China, exploration and development has started
China shale gas resource types, wide distribution, great potential. China's marine sedimentary area of up to 300 million square kilometers, marine facies sedimentary area of more than 200 million square kilometers, Shanghai land facies area of about 2.8 million square kilometers. These sedimentary area has the geological conditions of the organic rich shale, shale formations in the geological history is well developed, forming a marine, land and sea facies and various types of organic rich shale layers. Marine thick rich organic shale, mainly distributed in South China, mainly in the Yangtze region; paralic phase thin layer is rich in organic matter shale are mainly distributed in the north of our country, mainly in the north, northwest and Northeast China; lake facies thick layer organic rich mud shale, mainly distributed in large and medium-sized petroliferous basin, Songliao, Erdos basin.
At present, we have made important progress in the investigation and evaluation of shale gas resource in china. Land and Resources Department of oil and gas resources strategic research center and China Geology University (Beijing), from 2004 onwards began tracking foreign shale gas development, focus on China's shale gas geological conditions and rich organic shale development. After several years of accumulation, 2008 initially proposed Yangtze region for China's shale gas enrichment area, launched in 2009, and implement the "in key areas of China shale gas resource potential and favorable area with preferred" project, and in 2010 set up Sichuan, Chongqing, Guizhou and Hubei and shale gas resources strategy for the investigation to guide the test area. At the same time, in Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Anhui Areas and the northern part of the area carry out of shale gas resources in early stage of investigation and research, initially mastered the favorable areas of China organic rich shale distribution, determine the main layer, the initial formation of the shale gas resource potential evaluation method and favorable zone optimization standards framework, preferably a a group of shale gas enrichment zones, for in the country to carry out investigation and evaluation of shale gas resource potential and favorable zone optimization work to lay a solid foundation.
In 2011, the Ministry of land and resources in the national oil and gas resources strategic constituency project, set the "survey and evaluation of the shale gas resource potential and favorable zone optimization" project, the land is divided into upper Yangzi and Yunnan Guizhou Guangxi region, the lower and middle Yangtze and southeast area, North China and northeast, northwest region, the Qinghai Tibet region 5 large area, organization, 27 units of more than 420 people, of shale gas resource potential of evaluation system. The results show that China's shale gas geological conditions are very complicated, types of resources, the distribution of the relative concentration, mining resources potential for 25 trillion cubic meters (not including Qinghai Tibet area), and our country land and conventional natural gas, and the United States of 24 trillion cubic meters of similar. Optimization of favorable areas 1 million 110 thousand, an area of 180 square kilometers.
Shale gas exploration and development in China has just started. At present, the exploration and development of shale gas in China mainly concentrated in the Sichuan Basin and its periphery, Ordos Basin, in the eastern sag of Liaohe depression, more. China Petroleum in southern Sichuan and Yunnan Guizhou north area preferred the Weiyuan, Changning, Zhaotong and Fushun, Yongchuan four favorable block, after more than 10 wells drilling, which 7 wells obtained industrial gas flow. After drilling and fracturing in 1 horizontal wells, drilling, drilled horizontal wells wells. China's Sinopec in Qiandongnan, Southeast Chongqing, in the west of Hubei Province, Northeastern Sichuan, Biyang, Jianghan, Anhui and other places drilled more than 10 wells, of which 6 wells obtained industrial gas flow. Drilling and fracturing horizontal wells 1. Optimization of Pengshui, built in the south, yellow equal favorable block. CNOOC preparatory work for shale gas exploration in the area of Anhui and Zhejiang etc.. A significant discovery of continental shale gas has been obtained from 5 wells in the Yanan area of Shaanxi. Zoomlion coal in Shanxi Qinshui Basin is proposed in Shouyang, Qinyuan and Jincheng 3 shale gas favorable area.
The exploration and development of shale gas in China has been obtained important discoveries, have been drilled nearly 30 shale gas exploration wells, 18 wells obtained industrial gas flow, initial grasp of shale gas fracturing technology, has a good prospect. At present, China's enterprises have with Shell, Exxon Mobil and other Foreign Company to carry out cooperative development and joint research. The establishment of specialized institutions in domestic enterprises, scientific research institutions, began to study the formation mechanism of shale gas, enrichment rules, storage and preservation conditions. Oil companies are exploring shale gas horizontal well drilling and completion and multi stage fracturing technology.
Shale gas resource management in China has just begun. In view of the new energy resources of shale gas, the Ministry of land and resources to strengthen the management of shale gas exploration and development. Shale gas resource management program, and further clarify the shale gas resource management ideas, work principles and the main content and focus, etc.. In recent years to carry out the shale gas resource investigation and evaluation and research basis, with natural gas, coal-bed gas contrast, 2011 carried out shale gas new kinds of minerals and demonstration, to declare the work, approved by the State Council, shale gas, as new minerals management. At the same time, to carry out the transfer of shale gas prospecting bidding, the introduction of market mechanisms for shale gas resource management system innovation. 2011, successfully carried out the transfer of shale gas prospecting tender, completed the first exploration of China's oil and gas mining rights for the first time, to the oil and gas market reform has taken an important step.
Compared with the United States, China's shale gas exploration and development started late, the gap is big. At this stage, China's shale gas exploration and development problems, mainly including the following aspects:
First, the market is not fully liberalized. At present, only 6 state-owned oil and gas companies engaged in shale gas exploration and development, and other central and local state-owned capital, private capital, although there is a lot of enthusiasm, but has not yet entered. United States experience shows that the implementation of investment diversification, the formation of an orderly competitive mechanism in shale gas exploration and development has a significant effect.
Two is the lack of policy support. Shale gas exploration and development, with a high risk, high cost characteristics, generally require the government to give some policy support in terms of Taxation, when the formation of the scale and the market to improve the fiscal and taxation support policy. At present, although there are mineral resources compensation fees, prospecting and mining rights and other preferential policies, but the support and incentive policy has not been introduced.
Three is the lack of core technology. Compared with the United States, China has not yet formed the core technology system of shale gas exploration and development in resource evaluation, horizontal well, fracturing stimulation and so on. Moreover, China's shale gas geological conditions are more complex, the shale strata of the era of the old, high thermal evolution, experienced a multi-stage tectonic evolution, burial depth, preservation conditions are not ideal, the development of higher technical requirements. At present, the technical level of our country still can not fully meet the requirements of shale gas exploration and development.
Four is the degree of investigation is low. In recent years, despite China's shale gas geological theory, potential evaluation and favorable zone optimization etc. the preliminary exploration and achieved some progress, but the time is short, less investment, small efforts, the difficulty of the work remains to be further deepen.
Five is the lack of pipe network facilities. Developed natural gas pipeline network in the United States greatly reduced the cost of shale gas development and utilization. Compared with the United States, China's pipe network facilities construction lags behind, and there are network facilities in the third party access, market opening and other aspects of the system is not smooth, monopoly operations, lack of policy support. With the development of shale gas scale, lack of infrastructure and other issues will become a bottleneck restricting the development and utilization of shale gas.
Accelerate the development and utilization of shale gas in China must take measures to break the normal procedure.
Although the shale gas exploration and development in China started late, with the United States a large gap, there are many unfavorable factors, but a good start, showing a positive trend of development. Referring to the advanced experience of shale gas development in foreign countries, combining with the actual situation of our country, it is urgent to find the way to accelerate the development of shale gas exploration and development and utilization system with Chinese characteristics.
China has favorable conditions to accelerate the development of shale gas, if appropriate measures can greatly shorten the development process of shale gas development and utilization in China, to achieve leapfrog development. Expected 2020 production will be more than 100 billion cubic meters, to reach our current level of conventional natural gas production, and continued to maintain strong growth momentum. Production in 2030 is expected to be comparable to conventional natural gas, close to the United states. To this end, the following measures should be taken to promote the development and utilization of shale gas in China to achieve leapfrog development.
First open market. Create an open competitive environment, to promote the diversification of investment in shale gas exploration and development, to encourage small and medium enterprises and private capital to participate. Shale gas market, to encourage domestic capital, technical strength of a variety of investment subjects into the shale gas exploration and development field, allowing foreign companies to joint venture, cooperation and other ways to participate in the exploration and development of shale gas. Allow private capital, the central and local state-owned capital, etc., in order to wholly owned, equity participation, cooperation, provide professional services, etc., to participate in the development of shale gas investment.
Two is a technical problem. Organize the national advantages of scientific and technological strength joint research, key breakthrough in the horizontal well drilling and completion, reservoir fracturing transformation, shale gas content and reservoir physical property analysis and other technical bottlenecks. Focus on supporting and building a number of National Key Laboratory of shale gas and technical research and development center, to improve China's shale gas technology independent innovation capability and level. Encourage enterprises to develop and promote the application of new technologies, new processes, to provide effective theoretical and technical support for shale gas exploration and development and leapfrog development, and constantly improve the efficiency of resource development.
Three is to strengthen management. Shale gas exploration and development in the implementation of national level management. Scientific and rational development of shale gas development plan, reasonable guidance and comprehensive layout. All kinds of investment subject through competition to obtain shale gas mining rights. Countries in the oil and gas and other minerals have been registered in the shale gas mining rights, mining rights and other companies to obtain shale gas mining rights through competition. The implementation of contract management, through the respective rights and obligations of the contract. Strengthening the management of the exchange and delivery of the results of the shale gas bidding block and exploration data. The establishment of shale gas survey and evaluation, exploration and development, resource reserve management system and standards, strengthen the supervision of the whole process of shale gas exploration and development, to achieve orderly development.
Four is policy support. On the foundation of the United States and other countries to encourage shale oil and gas development policy research, combined with the reality of our country, reference to domestic coalbed gas exploration and development of preferential policies, formulation of shale oil and gas exploration and development policies to encourage the implementation of shale gas market pricing, independent sales; resource tax reduction and exemption, resource compensation fee and mining right usage fees. Key technology and equipment import tariff and other tax relief; the implementation of financial subsidies, security and other support policies to guide and promote the development of shale oil and gas industrialization.
Five is the investigation and evaluation. In the whole country, the basic research and investigation and evaluation of shale gas resources. Increase financial investment, the combination of research and production, comprehensive investigation and evaluation of China's shale gas resource potential, the preferred target area of exploration and development. Shale gas generation mechanism, enrichment conditions, distribution characteristics and development technology research, summed up the shale gas accumulation conditions and enrichment laws in China, the formation of shale gas based Geological and exploration and development theory system. In order to promote the exploration and development of shale gas in our country, the development of energy planning, especially the long-term development plan, macro policy and resource management of shale gas is provided.
Six is the first demonstration. In the Ministry of land and resources has been the construction of the "Sichuan, Chongqing, Guizhou and Hubei" shale gas resources strategy survey pilot test area basis, Sichuan, Chongqing, Guizhou, Hubei and Hunan, northern and southern Liaoning Province, shale gas key favorable area, construction of a number of shale gas exploration and development and comprehensive utilization demonstration base, in the evaluation and development of technology, management system, policy support, supervision mode and use etc. pilot, comprehensive test, first breakthrough, forming the reserves and deliverability. Formulate science reasonable development planning and pilot program of work, clear shale gas exploration and development with integrated demonstration project positioning, demonstration objectives, development priorities and safeguard measures, strengthen organizational leadership and coordination, constantly sum up experience, to promote national shale gas exploration and development and utilization of reference.
Seven is to pay attention to environmental protection. Tracking study of shale gas exploration and development of groundwater, the establishment of geological environment impact assessment system, fracturing mixed liquid chemical composition of reports and disclosure system, strengthen the exploration and development of shale gas mining area geological environment monitoring, of flowback fluid processing implemented strict supervision and management. To carry out the environmental impact assessment and supervision in the process of exploitation of shale gas. Strict enforcement of existing laws and regulations on environmental protection in china.
Eight is external cooperation. To strengthen international cooperation and exchange of shale gas, and actively introduce advanced technology of foreign shale gas development. Continue to follow the development of shale gas exploration and development in the United states. In the early stage of shale gas exploration and development, it is encouraged to cooperate with foreign experienced companies, and introduce the experimental test, horizontal drilling, well logging, cementing and fracturing technology. Establishing and strengthening the cooperation and exchange mechanism between the government and the shale gas, establishing the international cooperation platform for enterprises and scientific research institutions, and building a scientific and technological research alliance. Through the introduction of technology, joint research, the introduction of talent and commissioned by a variety of ways to quickly improve the level of shale gas technology in china.
Nine is the construction of pipe network. In particular to promote the natural gas infrastructure construction of pipe network, to speed up the natural gas transmission backbone network, communication network and local area network construction, and gradually built covering the natural gas backbone network and can meet the needs of the local network. Draw lessons from the experience of power system reform, the establishment of an independent operation of the natural gas pipeline network. According to the development trend of shale gas to adjust and improve the pipe network planning. Allow local and enterprise self built local pipe network. Encourage the development of LNG facilities and the use of shale gas in situ.

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